"The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics is a public voice of mathematics education, providing vision, leadership and professional development to support teachers in ensuring equitable mathematics learning of the highest quality for all students" (NCTM, 2009). In 2003, the NCTM outlined 16 standards for secondary educators to follow, 7 of which are content standards. These content standards extremely important because educators' "comfort with, and confidence in, their knowledge of mathematics affects both what they teach and how they teach it" (NCTM, 2003).

Please click each outcome below for a detailed reflection on each content standard, an artifact that illustrates my mastery of each content standard, and a reflection on how each artifact illustrates this mastery:

**Standard 9:** Knowledge of Number and Operation

Definition: Candidates demonstrate computational proficiency, including a conceptual understanding of numbers, ways of representing number, relationships among number and number systems, and meanings of operations.

**Standard 10:** Knowledge of Different Perspectives on Algebra

Definition: Candidates emphasize relationships among quantities including functions, ways of representing mathematical relationships, and the analysis of change.

**Standard 11:** Knowledge of Geometries

Definition: Candidates use spatial visualization and geometric modeling to explore and analyze geometric shapes, structures, and their properties.

**Standard 12:** Knowledge of Calculus

Definition: Candidates demonstrate a conceptual understanding of limit, continuity, differentiation, and integration and a thorough background in the techniques and application of the calculus.

**Standard 13:** Knowledge of Discrete Mathematics

Definition: Candidates apply the fundamental ideas of discrete mathematics in the formulation and solution of problems.

**Standard 14:** Knowledge of Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability

Definition: Candidates demonstrate an understanding of concepts and practices related to data analysis, statistics, and probability.

**Standard 15:** Knowledge of Measurement

Definition: Candidates apply and use measurement concepts and tools.